Maria Montessori, the Founder of the Montessori Method of Education

Maria Montessori was born in Chiaravalle (Ancona) on 31 August 1870 by an average family. He spent his childhood and youth in Rome where he decided to undertake scientific studies to become an engineer, a career which at that time was definitely off limits to women. Her parents would have willed homemaker, like most women of her generation.

Thanks to his obstinacy and the burning desire to study, Mary manages to bend the dullness of the family, tearing the consent for entry to the Faculty of medicine where he graduated in 1896 with a degree in psychiatry.

To be well aware of what effort had cost her this kind of choice and what sacrifices he had to undertake, suffice it to say that, in 1896, became the first doctor in Italy. From here also understands itself as professional circles in General, especially those related to medicine, were dominated by men, many of whom, surprised and bewildered by the arrival of this new “creation”, made fun of her even to threaten her. An attitude that unfortunately had serious consequences for the spirit is strong yet sensitive of Montessori, who took to loathe men or at least exclude them from her life so much that will never come to get married.

The first steps of his extraordinary career, that will become a real symbol and an icon of philanthropy, see her struggling with disabled children, which we lovingly and which will remain attached for the rest of his life, dedicating all their professional endeavors.

Around 1900 began a research project at the mental hospital of Santa Maria della Pietà Roman where, among adults mentally ill were children with behavioral disorders or who are locked up and treated as equals of other mentally ill adults and serious emotional abandonment.

The great doctor, in addition to the profusion of love and human attention he lavishes these poor creatures, they soon realize, thanks to her acumen and cited sensitivity, that the teaching method used with this type of “patients” is incorrect, it is not so suited to their physical and mental capabilities and needs.

After numerous attempts, years of observations and field trials, the Montessori brings us to develop a new and innovative method of teaching for children with disabilities. One of the basic concepts of this method (which has still rooted within the evolution of the first plane), is centered on the fact that children have different growth phases within which are more or less likely to learn a few things for neglecting the others. From here you will find a consequential differentiation of the curriculum and learning, “calibrated” about the real possibilities of the child. It is a process that today may seem obvious, but it required an evolution of pedagogical approaches and a careful reflection, within this thought, about what is or is not a child, and what characteristics such a creature, in fact, has.

The result of this effort is Dr. port to develop a cognitive teaching method totally different from any other in use at the time. Instead of the traditional methods that included reading and recitation from memory, educates children through the use of specific instruments, which gives much better results. Is revolutionized by this extraordinary teacher the very meaning of the word “store”, a word that not more related to a rational process of assimilation and/or purely cerebral, but conveyed through the empirical use of senses, implying obviously touching and manipulating objects.

The results are so surprising that even in a controlled trial from experts and from the same Montessori, disabled children receive a higher score than those considered normal. But if the vast majority of people would be deemed to have been met by such an outcome, this is not true of Maria Montessori and vice versa has a new, propulsive idea (from which we can evaluate his exceptional human depth). The initial question that arises is: “Because normal children cannot benefit from the same approach?”. That done, open a “children’s House” in the suburbs of Rome, one of his first hits.

Here’s what he writes, by the way, a document drawn up by the same Montessori Institute: “according to Maria Montessori, the question of children with severe deficiency you had to solve educational processes and not with medical treatments. For the Montessori teaching methods were irrational because the potential of substantially raising baby instead of helping them and make them emerge and develop.

So here is the education of the senses as a time of preparation for the development of intelligence, because the child’s education, similarly to that of the handicapped or deficit, must rely on sensitivity since the psyche of each other is all sensitivity.

Montessori material educates the child at the child’s own error correction and error control without the teacher (or leader) should intervene to correct.

The child is free in the choice of material takes practice so everything must arise from spontaneous interest of the child. So that education becomes a process of self-education and self-control. ”

Maria Montessori was also an author and has exposed its methods and its principles in numerous books. In particular, in 1909 publishes “the method of scientific pedagogy” which, translated into many languages, will give the Montessori world resonate.

He lived in various parts of Europe before returning to Italy, after the fall of fascism and the end of World War II.

He died on May 6, 1952 in Noordwijk, in the Netherlands, near the North Sea. His work lives on through the hundreds of schools set up in his name in the most diverse parts of the globe. The epitaph on his tombstone reads: “I pray dear children, who can all, to join me for peace-building in men and in the world”.

In the years ‘ 90, her face was depicted on banknotes Thousand Italian, replacing that of Marco Polo, and pending the entry into force of the single European currency.

First King of Italy, Father of the Nation

Victor Emmanuel was born in Turin on 14 March of 1820, the eldest son of Charles Albert, King of Sardinia and Maria Theresa of Austria. It is necessary for an heir to the throne starts to military discipline: at the age of eleven is Captain of riflemen, in 1831 is General and is promoted to Lieutenant General in 1846.

In 1842 he married Maria Adelaide, daughter of the viceroy of the Lombardo-Veneto, the Archduke Rainer of Austria. From the marriage were born Umberto, Clotilde, Maria Pia, Odo and Amedeo. Stands in the first independence war of the years 1848-1849, in Goito, acting as Commander of the Division of reserve, receiving the award of the gold medal. Contrasts for paternal policies of openness to Liberals; ascended the throne, however-after the abdication of his father in 1849–softens his intransigence respecting many concessions bestowed by Charles Albert, starting with the Statute.

On 20 November, after dissolving Parliament because it opposed the peace agreements with Austria and on the eve of new elections, publishes the bold “Proclamation of Moncalieri”, designed by Massimo d’Azeglio, which urges voters to prefer moderate leaders with an almost explicit threat of a coup.

Vittorio Emanuele II strives for the consolidation of the State, the army renews, promotes public education, promotes businesses especially with Great Britain ended up achieving a great popular support. In 1852 becomes Prime Minister the Earl of Cavour, whose ability to statesman will allow the King to implement its plans for unification: Cavour, ultimately, the real author of the unification of Italy.

Between the two is established for a relationship of mutual benefit, there is no friendly feelings: there will be, in fact, moments of friction and the King, on occasion, will prevent Cavour to implement some of its programs.

After the Crimean War and the ensuing Congress of Paris in 1856, which was first seen on the Kingdom of Sardinia, one of the European powers, France and allies with the, as agreed in 1858 at Plombières by Prime Minister, took part in the second war of independence, until the Armistice of Villafranca in which recognizes the Lombardy.

The marriage of his daughter Clotilde with Jerome Bonaparte strengthens ties with Napoleon III. Soon after, following the popular movements and the consequent plebiscites, they become part of the Kingdom even Tuscany and Emilia, although on the other hand is forced to cede nice and Savoy to France.

Vittorio Emanuele II comes into conflict with Cavour Garibaldi’s expedition of the thousand, starts in 1860, that he sees with a favorable eye, in contrast to the Prime Minister. The enterprise of the red shirts won him the annexation of the Kingdom of the two Sicilies. In September the State Church occupying the marches and Umbria.

By an act of 17 March 1861 assumes the title of King of Italy, bringing to fruition the great achievement that earned him the accolade of “father of the fatherland”. The following are years of consolidation of the Kingdom.

In 1865, King Vittorio Emanuele II moved the capital from Turin to Florence and implement important reforms, including the promulgation of the civil code and the abolition of the death penalty. In 1866, Prussia’s ally, initiates the third war of independence, which attaches the Veneto. On 20 September 1870, after the collapse of the French Empire and the withdrawal of troops from Rome, invoking the “Convention of September” of 1864, General Cadorna who, through the breach of porta Pia, entered the eternal city making the Kingdom its definitive and historic capital.

From that moment his influence on Italian politics gradually waned. In 1876, with a mandate to Agostino Depretis to form the next Government, opens a new political season by establishing the first left-wing Government in Italy.

Vittorio Emanuele II, the first King of Italy, goes off in Rome on 9 January 1878, only 58 years.

The Names of the Disney Princesses and Their Princes

Do you know the names and stories of the beautiful Disney Princesses?
Here is the list of the 11 Princesses and the meaning of their name.

SNOW WHITE
The name Snow White was invented by the Brothers Grimm to the protagonist of the famous fairy tale “snow white and the seven dwarfs” and its meaning is “with skin as white as snow.” Snow White lived in a beautiful castle with his father, who was a widower decided to remarry with a beautiful but wicked woman, evil Queen. The new Queen was wearing snow white rags and made her do menial jobs because he wanted to be the fairest of them all. But one day her magic mirror tells her that the prettiest of the Kingdom was his stepdaughter. In his envy Grimilde first tries to kill snow white, then turns into a horrible old and poisons the girl with an Apple. The Princess, tasted the fruit, he falls into a deadly sleep, but the kiss of Prince charming get them the evil spell.

CINDERELLA
Cinderella is the Italian form of the name Cinderella, which derives from the French Cendrillon and meaning “ash maiden, maiden among the ashes”. Cinderella, a very beautiful girl and unselfish, lived with his father, noble Lord widowed, she remarried to a woman austere. Shortly after the father dies and the girl stays with her stepmother and stepsisters. Cinderella has to work all day and can’t have friendships, but anyway happy and carefree thanks to the affection of small animals that live in the house. The day of the big dance, commissioned by the King to find a wife to the young child, the girl is left at home, but it appears the fairy godmother turns a pumpkin into a carriage and its ugly clothes in a beautiful dress worthy of a Princess. The young Prince is immediately dazzled by the beauty of Cinderella, but at midnight the girl runs away because the magic is fading. The Prince manages to find the girl and can finally live happily ever after.

AURORA
Aurora comes from the Sabino Ausel (name of a Roman Sun God corresponding to the Greek goddess Eos) and means “bright, shining”. Princess Aurora is much desired daughter of King Stephen and his Queen who to invite happiness every person of the Kingdom to attend the baptism of baby. Two fairy godmothers pay homage to the child the gift of beauty and song, while the evil fairy Maleficent le launches a curse: Aurora at the age of 16 years you prick with a spindle and die. The fairy godmothers want to protect the little girl and take her in a house abandoned in the Woods. Aurora grows Serena and on the very day of her sixteenth birthday she meets a mysterious boy and fell in love. Came home turns out to be a Princess. He returned to his Castle, but Maleficent can get stung with the time zone. Thanks to the third good fairy girl and dies, falls asleep only in a deep sleep. Will Prince Philippe, the mysterious boy in the Woods, to break the spell by kissing Aurora.

ARIEL
The name Ariel is derived from Hebrew and means “Lion of God”. In the Old Testament is also one of the names of the city of Jerusalem. The Little Mermaid Ariel red haired is the youngest of King Triton’s seven daughters. He has a great passion for the world of humans and would like to be able to live on land. One day he decided to travel to the surface while a young boy is drowning. Ariel saves the Prince Eric and falls in love. He also fell in love for the girl, but you remember only the melodious voice. The Little Mermaid is not peace and will appeal to the sea witch, Ursula. Within three days, Ariel must improve to get private kiss from Eric or be imprisoned forever. Eric however kills the ship’s bowsprit and Ursula with dissolves all its evil. Newt gives her daughter a pair of legs and finally Ariel can achieve his dream of love with Prince Eric.

BELLE
Belle comes from the Latin adjective Bellus and means “beautiful, graceful”. The passion of beautiful, the prettiest girl in the village, is to read and you can live the adventures recounted in his books. It is a very brave girl, selfless and can see beyond appearances. One day the beast abducts Bianca’s father, but she has her captive in his place. Over time, Belle befriends the servants of the Castle and manages to pull off the altruistic side of the landlord. He is actually a Prince transformed from a fairy because they are too stingy and arrogant. The spell will break only the day when some girl will declare his love. The beast free Belle and she comes from the father, but in the meantime some men of the village decide to kill her captor. Belle manages to get to the Castle just as the beast is about to die, but the young man confides his love and he changes back into a Prince.

JASMINE
The name comes from the Persian Yasmin, used to refer to a plant with fragrant flowers from which are extracted scents and essences, or jasmine. Jasmine is a girl with a strong and independent and is the beautiful daughter of the Sultan of Agrabah. The father must marry Jasmine by his next birthday, but the girl rejects all suitors. Does not like life in the Palace, treats it as a gilded cage, so she decides to escape. Venture to the market and meets Aladdin. Is love between the two, but the palace guards imprison the young man accused of kidnapping of Jasmine. Aladdin manages to escape thanks to the genius of the lamp and Prince Ali Ababwa turns in asking for the hand of the Princess. Thanks to its magic carpet will make the world go round. The Sultan, convinced of the love between the two, will amend the law and Jasmine will finally marry Aladdin.

POCAHONTAS
The name Pocahontas mean “playful”. Pocahontas is a Princess Algonquin, daughter of Chief Powhatan. He lives his life by respecting nature and animals, but does not yet know what his street. One day a British ship in search of gold and the girl knows John Smith. Despite their different languages can communicate; Pocahontas speaks of nature and him in London. The Algonquin discover the secret affair of Pocahontas and John, then decide to kill him, but the girl defending it intervenes with his own body. The Princess will also prevent its people declare war to the British. Will he prove that love is stronger than hate.

MULAN
Mulan comes from Chinese Mu Lan whose meaning should be “strong Orchid”. Mulan is very strong, reflective and agile, but also a very sweet person and sensitive. is a Chinese girl who pretends to be a boy to replace his father in the war against the Huns. Under the alias Table joins the army led by Captain Li Shang. The Chinese army is succumbing, but Mulan, although wounded, managed to cause an avalanche that buries the Huns. Shang however discovers the secret of Ping; should condemn her to death, but the army captain the bans by the Group of soldiers and spared his life. It will then Mulan to alerting of approaching enemies. Does disguise his comrades by women so that they pass unnoticed and, with a rocket full of fireworks, manages to destroy the Huns. After Mulan to marry Captain Li Shang.

TIANA
Tiana is the Russian form of Tatiana nickname, Tatiana, a source name Sabina meaning “son of Tatius”. Tiana is a girl of African American ethnicity and resourceful solar. Already as a child loves to cook and dreams of becoming a good chef like his dad and opening a restaurant in New Orleans. Join the celebration of Mardi Gras of friend Charlotte and wears a princess dress. This dress will make believe Prince Naveen, transformed into a frog by the evil Dr. Facilier, kissing a real Princess. According to the spell, after the Kiss, the frog Prince, but is instead should turns back into Tiana into a frog. Among them, however, comes love and decide to get married, even though they are intended to stay frogs. After the ceremony the two kiss and, at that time, return humans. Tiana’s dream becomes reality and eventually opened the restaurant “Tiana’s Palace” (the Palace of Tiana).

RAPUNZEL
Rapunzel is the name invented by the Brothers Grimm to the character of the fairy tale. The name derives from the plant belonging to the family of Campanulaceae, Rapunzel. Long ago fell from the sky one drop of Sun, of whom was born a magic golden flower with incredible healing powers. It seized Mother Gothel, a wicked woman and selfish, he used the powers of the flower to keep a young and beautiful woman. Centuries later, in those places there arose a Kingdom, whose Queen pregnant fell ill and was treated with miraculous flower subtracted to the witch. But Gothel is determined to recover the powers of the flower, but understands that magic now resides in the hair of Rapunzel gold tone. Then kidnaps the baby and makes it grow Rapunzel in a high tower. 17 years later, it has become a beautiful girl, sweet and brave. It will be thanks to the young Flynn (his real name is Eugene) that Rapunzel will start to remember being a Princess and defeat Gothel.

MERIDA
The name Merida comes from Latin and means “which reached a place of honor”. The Princess Merida is a stubborn teenager and impetuous. Loves to shoot a bow, use sword and run with his horse in the realm of the Dumbrok clan in southern Scotland. One evening Merida is informed by his mother that he must marry by choosing one of the three sons of the chiefs of the clans that his father governs. The girl is angry with his mother and is determined to live a free life and adventurous. Addresses so the old witch who instead to free her from the engagement frees a curse against the mother turning her into a bear. After a thousand misadventure Merida will rediscover the love that binds the parents and thanks to his courage will break the spell.

Lucio Battisti, Italian Singer-Songwriter

Lucio Battisti, unforgettable singer songwriter born in Poggio Bustone, hill town in the province of Rieti, on 5 March 1943. As in all things pertaining to Battisti, man has always been very jealous of their privacy, to the point of disappearing for years from the spotlight, little is known of his early childhood: the rare testimonies tell of a quiet child, quite closed and with weight problems.

The family, supplemented by sister Albarita, petty-bourgeois is the type that goes for more in Italy in those years: mom and dad used to excise taxes. In Poggio Bustone anyway last name Baptists is widespread, not surprisingly mum Goddess called Baptists even maiden name. In 1947 the family moved to Castel Sant’Angelo tanks around Rieti three years later in Rome; during summer vacation the hometown remains a fixed destination.

As against this information vacuum, scarcely filled by biographers, comes to the rescue of the singer-songwriter himself, issued a statement in an interview in December 1970 for the magazine dream: “curly hair I had them so long that even as a kid and thought I was a little girl. I was a kid, I played with quiet nothing, with a pencil, with a piece of paper and I dreamed. The songs came later. I had a normal childhood, I wanted to be a priest, I served mass when I was four, five years. But then once, as I was talking to church with a friend instead of following the function-I’ve always been a big talker-a priest gave a slap to the head. Maybe after I took other items that were turned away from the Church, but already with this episode I had changed my mind. ”

In the capital Baptists attended elementary and high school and graduated as industrial engineer in 1962. Of course has long been holding guitar and sings his songs or other, shooting with friends among some locals, although his ambition gradually as time passes it becomes increasingly that of wanting to enter the profession. Ravi’s father is not agree with the artistic choices of the son, again purely sketched. It is said that in the many discussions in this regard, Abate has even broken in head to Lucio a guitar.

The first experience in a band is in the autumn of 1962 as a guitarist of “the Matadors” group of young Neapolitans. Here come the early gains, but not enough; Lucio Battisti complex changes and soon joins “satyrs”. In 1964 the complex went to play in Germany and Netherlands: an excellent opportunity to listen to the music of Dylan and the Animals. The first engagement of Baptists soloist comes when he calls the 84 Club of Rome.

The singer demonstrates immediately to have a clear head and a good dose of ambition; from that experience gets the distinct feeling that playing in a group doesn’t like it and so he decided to try his luck alone to Milan, considered at the time a “Mecca” of the song. Here, unlike many of his peers that to make ends meet accept alternative work, doesn’t bend to compromise solutions and barricaded for weeks in a suburban Board pursues undistracted one purpose: to prepare while waiting for the meeting with a major record label.

In 1964 composed his first songs together with Roby Matano, before moving to the first 45 rpm, “Per una lira”. The curious fact is that the producers decided not to put his face on the cover because you decided to “appeal”. So you resorted to a compromise, showing it in full figure, shoulders, hugging a girl, while the two stood playing a liretta, DIME already at that time very rare.

In 1965 the key encounter with Giulio Rapetti, the most famous “lyricists” Italian landscape, under the pseudonym of Mughals. The two are a good form of symbiosis which will run happily for over fifteen years, during which time together they will write some milestones of Italian music.

In 1968 with “Balla Linda” Lucio Battisti participates in the Cantagiro; in 1969, paired with Wilson Pickett, presents in Sanremo “an adventure”. The decisive statement arrives in the following summer, Festivalbar, with “Acqua azzurra, acqua chiara”. But the years of Baptists were undoubtedly the ‘ 70 and ‘ 80, inaugurated with two highly successful songs, “La canzone del sole” and “for you”, recorded for his new label, which he founded with some friends and Associates, and bearing the name emblematic of “number one”. From then on success marks an impressive series of masterpieces, all in first place on the charts. Also did you know that Battisti was also author for other, Publisher and record producer, distributing success for Mina, Patty Pravo, the complex Formula Three and Bruno Lauzi.

But the great success achieved has not eliminated the intimate and familiar that Lucio Battisti has always favored in his life. Rare and unique characteristic, has maintained contact with the public only through his records and some sporadic interview with press, ignoring television and concerts, retreating to the countryside. For better products and its expectations, first established a recording studio staff directly at home and later, looking for a sound increasingly modern, sought optimal studies in England or the United States.

His records have always been the result of a long and meticulous where nothing was left to chance, not even the cover. The consequences of this care were very high costs of many of his productions, even if the final product has never betrayed expectations nor of those who had made or had competed to carry it out, nor of the intended audience.

On September 9, 1998 Lucio Battisti has turned off, arousing huge clamor and commotion in Italy, the country that has always loved and supported despite the decade-long absence from the media limelight. Hospitalization and illness, before his death, were dominated by the almost absolute silence on the real state of health.

Today, after his death, his house of residence is the subject of an unstoppable bustle of fans or just curious. View the turnout, a scale specially built allows you to take a close look at the balcony where the artist as a young man, he played his guitar.

Lady Diana Spencer, Princess of the People

Diana Spencer was born on July 1, 1961 at Parkhouse right near the Royal residence of Sadringham. Even as a young Diana suffers from the lack of maternal figure: the mother is often absent and neglects his family.

Not only that, but Lady Frances Roche, Bounke his name, let Parkhouse when Diana has only six years left to live with a wealthy landowner, Peter Shaud Kidd.

At twelve Diana enrolled at secondary schools at the Institute of West Heoth in Kent; shortly after leaving the beloved residence of Parkhouse and moved in the castle of Althorp in the County of Northamptonshire. The family of Spencer, in hindsight, is even older and more noble than that of Windsor. His father Lord John becomes the eighth Earl of Althorp. His son Charles became Viscount and the three sisters Diana, Sarah and Jane are elevated to the rank of Lady.

When the future Princess turns 16 on the occasion of a dinner for the visit of the Queen of Norway meets the Prince of Wales but between the two, at the moment it clicks No at first sight. Only a desire to deepen his knowledge. Meanwhile, as is normal, the young Diana in an effort to lead a life as close as possible, as much as possible, to that of its peers (it is still far from imagine that will become, instead, even Princess and pretender to the throne of England), he moved to a flat in Coleherm Court, a residential suburb of London. Of course, this is not a poor and lower-level apartment, but still a prestigious residence.

In any case, this inner desire to “normality” leads her to seek independence and trying to get by with his forces. Fits also not prestigious jobs such as waitress and babysitter, and to share his home with three other female students. Between one work and another also finds time to devote to kindergarten two blocks from his home.

The company of other girls does have a positive effect in every sense. It is thanks to their help and psychological support that Lady Diana confronts the courtship of Charles, the Prince of Wales met at that famous party. In fact, on these first stages of contradictory rumors abound: some people say that the most enterprising was him, while others claim it was her who has brought forward the true work of courtship.

However, the two were engaged and, within a short time, get married. The ceremony is one of the most anticipated media events and followed of the globe, even for the massive presence of high ranking personalities from around the world. In addition, the age difference of the couple can only raise inevitable gossip. Almost ten years separate Prince Charles from Lady q you: 22-year-old just out of adolescence. Him: thirty-three already started to maturity. On July 29, 1981, in St Paul’s Cathedral, are defendants sovereigns, heads of State and international media eyed observed society of over eight hundred million viewers.

And also the continuation of the Royal retinue, people of flesh and blood that will follow the car with the couple, is not far behind: along the path that the coach takes, there are something like two million people!

After the ceremony, Diana is now officially her Royal Highness the Princess of Wales and later Queen of England.

Due to its informal behavior, Lady D (as dubbed by tabloids with a fairytale touch), enter at once into the hearts of his subjects and the whole world. Unfortunately the marriage goes as so well as the pictures of the ceremony left hope, indeed, is clearly in crisis. Even the birth of her sons William and Harry manages to save a marriage already compromised.

Reconstructing the chronological plan this complex tangle of events we see that already in September 1981 is officially announced that the Princess was pregnant but between the two had already crept from time Camilla Parker-Bowles, a former partner of Charles Prince has never ceased to attend and where Princess Diana is (rightly, as you’ll see later) very jealous. Such is the State of tension of the Princess, its degree of unhappiness and resentment that attempts suicide several times, with shapes ranging from nervous disorder to bulimia.

In December 1992 is officially announced the separation. Lady Diana moved to Kensington Palace, while Prince Charles lives at Highgrove. In November 1995, Diana gives an interview on television. He talks about his unhappiness and the relationship with Charles.

Charles and Diana divorced on August 28, 1996. In years of marriage, Diana he made several official visits. He travels to Germany, in the United States, Pakistan, Switzerland, Hungary, Egypt, Belgium, France, South Africa and Nepal, Zimbabve. There are numerous charitable activities and solidarity in which besides its image, actively engages with the sample.

After separating Lady D continues to appear next to the Royal family in the official celebrations. The 1997 is the year when Lady Diana is actively supporting the campaign against landmines.

Meanwhile, after a series of unspecified flirt, takes shape the relationship with Dodi al Fayed, billionaire Arab Muslims. Is not one of the usual head shots but a real love. If the report is shaping into something official on an institutional level, commentators argue that this would be a major blow to the already faltering British Crown.

It is even as the “couple of scandal” try to sow the paparazzi that is the terrible accident in the Alma tunnel in Paris: both, at the end of a summer spent together, are killed. It’s the August 31, 1997.

An unrecognizable armored Mercedes, with inside the bodies of travelers, is retrieved after the frightening accident.

The Princess’s body was buried in a tiny Islet in the middle of an oval pond landscaping his home at Althorp Park, about 130 kilometers Northwest of London.

Since then, even after many years, regularly follow one another hypothesis to explain the incident. Someone even suspects that the Princess was pregnant at that time: the fact that the Prince William would have a half brother Muslim, would have been considered a real scandal for the Royal family. This like other hypotheses are often point to the presence of plots, creating an increasingly dense air of mystery surrounding the affair. Investigations to date do not stop: it seems unlikely that it will come to know the whole truth.

Margaret Thatcher, the Iron Lady

Margaret Hilda Roberts Thatcher, born on October 13, 1925, the daughter of a grocer who was hard-won her place at Oxford. After a series of regular studies, which do not show you any particular extraordinary dowry intellectually (although there was certainly the fact he was smart), she devoted herself to the study of chemistry, graduating from the University of Oxford. From 1947 to 1951 he worked as a chemist in research, but in 1953, having also studied as a lawyer, she became accountant.

In rehashing the past of this lady who has profoundly marked the history of his country, all witnesses are however agreed to call a person with incredible grit, of great common sense and an extraordinary political acumen.

Once back on politics in the ranks of the English right, in fact, had the merit, when all they now assume the decline of Britain, had appealed the “whip” and he returned to his fellow citizens proud of being British, engaging them in an unlikely war against Argentina in defense of forget the Falkland Islands.

Entry in the conservative party, was elected to the House of Commons in 1959, covering, inter Alia, the role of Minister for education and science in Government Heath for four years, from 1970 to 1974. After the conservative defeat in the elections of 1974, challenged Heath for the leadership of her party and the conquest in 1975. Four years after he led the party to victory, promising to stop the British economic decline and to reduce the role of the State. It’s May 4, 1979 when it begins her term as Prime Minister.

Margaret Thatcher founded its policy on the idea that “society does not exist. There are only individuals, men and women, and there are families. “The “purge the Thatcher sort” was so essentially in the deregulation of labor and capital markets, the privatization of those industries nationalized British State had assumed as a result of war, economic depression and socialist ideology. the result? She declared herself (and indeed confirm, according to analysts, macroeconomic data): “We have reduced the government deficit and we repaid the debt. We heavily cut basic income tax and also the highest taxes. And to do this we firmly reduced government spending as a percentage of national output. We reformed the law on trade unions and unnecessary regulations. We have created a virtuous circle: pulling back the Government have given way to the private sector, and so the private sector has generated more growth, which in turn has allowed solid finances and low taxes.”

His political action, in short, is based on the assumption that liberal: “the Government can do little good and much that hurts and then the focus of the Government must be kept to a minimum” and that “it is the possession of property that has a mysterious psychological effect but no less real: take care of your offers training in becoming responsible citizens. The owning a property gives the man fighting against a Government too intrusive. For most of us, forcing us property nodes by duties that otherwise we could shift: to continue with the metaphor prevent us from falling into marginalization. Encourage people to buy property and save was much more than an economic programme.” Was, in fact, the creation of a program that has put an end to a society based on a single generation, putting in its place a democracy based on the possession of capital”.

Strengthened by the success of its policy on the Falkland Islands in 1982, led the conservatives to a landslide victory in the elections of June 1983. In October 1984 escaped to an attack exploded a bomb, when IRA Irish Republican extremists at the Grand Hotel in Brighton during a Party Congress. Victorious again in June 1987 he became the first British Prime Minister in the twentieth century to achieve three consecutive terms.

The “Iron Lady”, so nicknamed for his steady hand and the decision with which he carried out his reforms, she left voluntarily and officially inside Downing Street, resigning in November 1990 Gulf crisis, mainly due to some disagreements in the party about his tax policy and on her euro-scepticism. About the Middle East crisis, in interviews the former conservative leader declared unofficially his astonishment at a war ended too quickly and without the destruction of the Iraqi dictator: “when you start a job that matters is doing it all the way, and well. Saddam is still there and the matter in the Gulf has not yet closed. ”

After Margaret Thatcher, became Baroness, supposedly remarked with satisfaction the programme that she had no time to finish applied by “progressive” party of Blair and the conservative party that drove her from Downing Street was reduced to shreds. Even today some analyst, few political or sometimes even some party leaders declare openly that to solve their problems would take a Thatcher, in order to enforce English care even to you. The “thathcherismo”, in fact, gave birth to something that influenced, for at least a generation, the world class events.

The historical significance of Margaret Thatcher, in summary, is that of being the first in Europe to pursue a policy based on the need to fight the statism and to locate in the private and in the free market taken the best way to boost the economy of a country.

At the beginning of 2012 is released the biopic “The Iron Lady” as performed by the talented Meryl Streep.

After heart attacks and strokes that hit her at the beginning of 2000, and long suffering from Alzheimer’s, Margaret Thatcher died in London at the age of 87 years the day April 8, 2013.

Camilla Parker Bowles

Born in London on July 17, 1947, Camilla Shand is the daughter of a British army officer and Rosalind Cubitt. Awarded the title of Duchess of Cornwall, Camilla was educated according to the dictates of the Anglican religion.

His uncle, Lord Ashcombe, is the figurehead of the entire family, appointed by the Conservative Government. Like all young British women, Camilla spent his teenage years at boarding school, and here learns a harsh discipline. After being in a Swiss Agency, back to England to find a husband.

Despite not being much good or class, the July 4, 1973 joins in marriage to Andrew Parker Bowles, with whom gives birth to two children, Laura and Tom. At wedding reception join Prince Charles, friend of the couple and godfather to their children. While her husband and the children follow the Catholic religion, Camilla does not give up ever to practice the doctrine of the Church of England. The Duchess and the Prince of Wales Charles have known each other guys, and even though they are both married, their relationship lasted for about thirty years. They say it was Camilla Parker Bowles who suggested to Charles to marry Diana Spencer.

After her divorce with her husband, took place on March 3, 1995, the Duchess of Cornwall, Duchess of Rothesay, Scotland known as back to attend his great love Charles since 1999. On February 10, 2005 officially gets engaged. Initially, the relationship between the two is not seen kindly by the Crown because Camilla Parker Bowles is a divorced woman, while Charles will become the Governor of the Church of England. The consent of the Church of England, of Parliament and of Elizabeth II, the couple could tie the knot.

On April 9, 2005 Charles, Prince of Wales, Lady Diana Spencer’s widower, marries his second wife, Camilla Parker Bowles. This, for respect for the late Diana, who died in tragic circumstances on August 31, 1997, renouncing the title of Princess of Wales and prefer to be called with the subheadings of which you already have.

When Prince Charles will happen to the throne of England, Camilla, being his wife, becomes in effect “Queen Consort”.

There is a particular to consider: If Camilla Shand had converted to Catholicism, Carlo, after marriage, would be excluded from the succession to the throne along with his descendants. Despite the controversy and lack of sympathy that surrounds the figure of Camilla, hardly less popular and well ordered compared to Diana, it seems that their relationship is very solid.

Some time ago there were rumours about a crisis of couple, and there were also reports of a possible divorce. In spite of the odds, Camilla and Charles’s great, and the public expects to live happily ever after.

Mary, Queen Of Scots

Mary Stuart (who’s name Italianized by Mary Stuart) was born on 8 December 1542 at Linlithgow in West Lothian, daughter of King James V of Scotland and Duchess French Mary of guise, his second wife.

Become Queen of Scots just six days after the death of her father (probably from cholera), sees her fate when it is still very small: while the Earl of Arran James Hamilton was appointed as her Regent, when she have only six months to live-is established by the treaties of Greenwich-his marriage in 1552 (i.e. When will have ten years) to the son of Henry VIII of England , Edward.

Queen of Scots at nine months of age

Mary, however, hides from her mother in the castle of Sterling, contrary to the wedding, and in nine months of life is crowned Queen of Scotland: is the 9 September 1543. The treaties of Greenwich, however, are broken a few days later: it follows a war which causes Maria to disappear back into Sterling Castle and then sent in the Priory of Inchmahome. later, the little is transferred to Dumbarton Castle.

In 1548 is referred to as the Treaty of marriage which will enact the marital union between Mary and Francis, son of the King of France, Henry II. The baby, so with his future already established, he sent in France, to spend his childhood at the Court of the Valois.

Marriage in France

Across the channel, the baby receives a complete statement, learning to speak-in addition to the Scots, her native language-even the Italian, Spanish, Greek, Latin and-of course-French. On 24 April 1558, barely sixteen years old, goes to Notre Dame de Paris with Francis; the following year, after the death of Henry II, becomes Queen of France, while Francis ascends to the throne as Francis II.

Following the death of her husband, died on 5 December 1560, turns his attention to Scotland, where-thanks to the support of Elizabeth of England–ended in a positive way the fight for proclaiming the Protestant religion.

Mary does not recognize the Treaty of Edinburgh, which decreed the expulsion of the French, and accepts the hospitality of Protestant Lords, unhappy with the behavior of Elizabeth: the widow of Francis, then, arrives at Leith in August 1561. The following are relatively peaceful years, partly because his association with the Lords can count on the support of the Protestant moderate wing of Protestants of Scotland and the Earl of Moray: a support that allows her to profess a personal level Catholic worship, as part of an overall policy of religious tolerance.

The balance between Catholic and Protestant religions

Mary, however, is to act in situations of precarious balance: on the one hand have to undergo strong pressure from Catholic circles, while the other side has to contend with violent extremism by Knox. This balance is less when in 1565 Mary Stuart, after he refused to marry the Earl of Leicester despite the suggestion of Elizabeth, decides to join in marriage with the leader of Catholics in Scotland, Enrico Damley, ignoring the predictable opposition by Protestants.

After defeating Moray, which shelters in England, Mary Stuart is forced to face an increasingly complicated political situation, which is exacerbated by the ambitions of her husband, who would be proclaimed Prince-Consort, but above all by his infatuation with David Rizzio, his Secretary.

The complicated political events

The latter is killed in 1566, thanks to the Alliance stipulated by Protestant nobles (certainly not happy with the continuous attempts of Mary to restore Catholicism) with Damley: an Alliance that still ends soon.

Reconciled with Henry, Mary becomes the mother of James and sowing discord among the nobles, weakening their opposition; then, supported by the Earls of Atholl, Huntly and Bothwell returned to Edinburgh and embarks on an affair with the same Bothwell.

After the assassination of Damley of 9 February 1567, Mary married Bothwell according to Protestant rites; later is forced to abdicate due to victory at Carberry Hill of nobles, and chose to take refuge in Lochleven.

After being defeated even at Langside, try to find shelter in Elizabeth, England. The situation, however, is not the most easy: on the one hand, Mary has always shown an adversary of Elizabeth, who repeatedly had explicitly expressed not to be willing to do without his rights to the English Crown; across the same Elizabeth is embarrassed, as they would not want to meddle in the Affairs of Mary and her punishment that is claimed.

The trial and sentencing to death

The announced plan for a marriage between Maria and the Duke of Norfolk, which would allow him to resolve the situation, he fails. Involved in the Babington plot, Mary Stuart is conducted in Fotheringhay Castle and subjected to trial, despite the embarrassment of having to judge a foreign sovereign (in a circumstance like that, in fact, the accused should be exiled).

In October 1586 Maria is processed by a Court of forty men (including some Catholics) on charges of high treason. Despite its strong defense, is sentenced to death. Elizabeth, in spite of much hesitation, agrees to sign the Decree of condemnation: Mary Stuart died on 8 February 1587 at Fotheringhay, at 44 years of age.

According to historical evidences the beheading of Mary Queen of Scots was quite brutal: it was necessary a second shot of dark because the head of Queen seceding from the body. After death he suffered the indignity of exposure to the crowd. He also told that Mary’s skirt at some point after death began to move and came out from below the Queen’s little dog that Mary Stuart was able to hide under the long robes.

Later her cousin Queen Elizabeth died unmarried and childless. On his deathbed he nominated the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, James Stuart, a Protestant, as the next King of England.